• ISSN 16748301
  • CN 32-1810/R
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs) extracted from conifers such as P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi have long been studied for their anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of VOCs from P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to generate a mouse model for inflammation by the nasal route to the lungs and intraperitoneally to the whole body. VOCs of P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi were exposed to the mice by standardized wood panels with closed system. Increased levels of serum IgE and PGE2 were observed after exposure to dexamethasone and VOCs. We further determined the expression levels of inflammatory cytokine mRNA in the LPS-induced inflammation model by the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-13 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Those inflammatory cytokines and the key enzyme for inflammation cyclooxygenase-2 expression in PBMCs were strongly reversed by dexamethasone and VOCs. Lung tissues after nasal LPS exposure showed increased cytokine mRNA expressions which were suppressed by treatment with dexamethasone and VOCs. Furthermore, the damage induced by LPS was attenuated by dexamethasone and VOCs. In conclusion, the results from the present study indicate that VOCs of P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi have a therapeutic potential in the treatment or prevention of local and systemic inflammation due to their immunosuppressive effects.
Previous research has shown that smooth muscle of the stomach undergoes developmental changes in the intracellular regulatory mechanism responsible for the contractile process. Whether these developmental changes relate to differences in the expression and/or activity of the key enzymes regulating smooth muscle contraction has not been previously evaluated. Therefore, we aimed to examine the expression and activation of the small monomeric G protein "RhoA" and Rho kinase (ROCK) as well as their correlation with the contraction of gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs) in newborn vs. adult rats. Freshly isolated single GSMCs from Sprague-Dawley rats at 1 week (newborn) and 3 months (adult) of age were used in the study. Protein and mRNA expression levels of both ROCK2 and total RhoA were higher in adult compared to newborn rats. Moreover, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions of GSMCs in adult rats were significantly higher than that in newborn animals. Meanwhile, ROCK and Rho activation was higher in adult stomach cells compared to newborn ones. Pretreatment of GSMCs with Y-27632, the ROCK inhibitor, significantly reduced ACh-induced contraction in both groups of cells and greatly abolished contractile differences. In conclusion, our results indicate that RhoA/ROCK pathway and contraction of stomach muscle cells are under developmental regulation.
The generation of a high-quality egg for reproduction requires faithful segregation of chromosome during oocyte meiosis. Here, we report that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 6 (EML6) is highly expressed in oocytes, and responsible for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes in mice. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that EML6 was predominantly expressed by oocytes in the ovaries. Whole mount immunofluorescent staining showed that EML6 was colocalized with spindle microtubules in oocytes at various stages after meiotic resumption. This specialized localization was disrupted by nocodazole, the microtubule destabilizer, while enhanced by Taxol, a microtubule stabilizing reagent. In vivo knockdown of Eml6 expression by the specific siRNA resulted in chromosome misalignment and alteration in spindle dimension at both metaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ stages, as well as the increased aneuploidy in the mature oocytes. Thus, these data suggest that EML family proteins participate in the control of oocyte meiotic division.
Overexpression of heat shock protein 27(HSP27) in gastric cancer is correlated with poor clinical prognosis. Melatonin, an endogenous hormone, shows promise in gastric cancer therapy. However, there is limited study on the biological activity of HSP27 in response to melatonin treatment. In this study, we show an anti-proliferative action of melatonin on human gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and MGC-803. Biochemically, the inhibitory effect of melatonin is accompanied by the upregulation of HSP27 phosphorylation level. Transfection of gastric cancer cells with HSP27-specific siRNA effectively reduces HSP27 phosphorylation and potentiated melatonin-induced inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. The reduction of cyclin D1 in melatonin-treated cells is also aggravated by HSP27 depletion. Moreover, melatonin stimulation increases p38 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with p38 inhibitor SB203580 not only remarkably suppresses melatonin-induced HSP27 phosphorylation, but also augment the inhibitory effect of melatonin on cyclin D1 expression as well as cell proliferation. Taken together, our study indicates the protective pathway of p38/HSP27 against melatonin-induced inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell proliferation, suggesting that combined with p38/HSP27 pathway inhibitor, the therapeutic efficacy of melatonin on gastric cancer may be improved.
The actual incidence of human H7N9 infection is supposed to be much higher than the documented laboratory-confirmed cases. In this study, we estimated the number of the actual H7N9 cases in Jiangsu, China using a probabilistic multiplier model. Then, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), direct and indirect economic loss caused by this disease were calculated and analyzed. Till September 2017, the estimated total number of H7N9 cases was 2 952 [median, 90% probability range (PR): 1 487−22 094], which was 11.8 times (5.9−88.4) as large as the reported number. The median morbidity was estimated to be 4 (90% PR: 2−29) per 100 000 population. The total DALYs loss was 16 548 years, and the total economic loss (direct and indirect) was estimated to be RMB 1 044 618 758 (US$ 16.7 M). The average economic loss for per case and for per year was RMB 353 868 (US$ 56 440) and RMB 232 137 502 (US$ 37.0 M), respectively. The actual burden of human H7N9 infections was much heavier than what was documented. Our study provided an approach to estimate actual burden of infectious diseases using laboratory-confirmation.
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR and MALAT1 are implicated in the development of multiple cancers. Genetic variants within HOTAIR and MALAT1 may affect the gene expression, thereby modifying genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer. A case-control study was designed, including 1,486 cervical cancer patients and 1,536 healthy controls. Based on RegulomeDB database, 11 SNPs were selected and genotyped by using Sequenom's Mass ARRAY. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We found that the A allele of rs35643724 in HOTAIR was associated with increased risk of cervical cancer, while the C allele of rs1787666 in MALAT1 was associated with decreased risk. Compared to individuals with 0–1 unfavorable allele, those with 3–4 unfavorable alleles showed 18% increased odds of having cervical cancer. Our findings suggest that HOTAIR rs35643724 and MALAT1 rs1787666 might represent potential biomarkers for cervical cancer susceptibility.
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been considered as a first-choice treatment for type B aortic dissection (TBAD). However, some patients that is lack of optimal landing zones (<15 mm in dissected Z2, Z3 or the presence of a lusorian artery) still pose significant challenges for TEVAR. We utilized a surgical stent-graft implantation in the descending aorta combined with supra-aortic vessels transposition through median sternotomy for these special TBAD patients. The short- and mid-term results showed that our procedure is a good and alternative therapy for such kind patients.
The Journal of Biomedical Research--2019, 33(4)
Perspective
Review Article
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of liver transplant failure, and is of increasing significance due to increased use of expanded criteria livers for transplantation. This review summarizes the mechanisms and protective strategies for hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in the context of liver transplantation. Pharmacological therapies, the use of pre-and post-conditioning and machine perfusion are discussed as protective strategies. The use of machine perfusion offers significant potential in the reconditioning of liver grafts and the prevention of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, and is an exciting and active area of research, which needs more study clinically.
Original Article
Clinical xenotransplantations have been hampered by human preformed antibody-mediated damage of the xenografts. To overcome biological incompatibility between pigs and humans, one strategy is to remove the major antigens [Gal, Neu5Gc, and Sd(a)] present on pig cells and tissues. Triple gene (GGTA1, CMAH, and β4GalNT2) knockout (TKO) pigs were produced in our laboratory by CRISPR-Cas9 targeting. To investigate the antigenicity reduction in the TKO pigs, the expression levels of these three xenoantigens in the cornea, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and pancreas tissues were examined. The level of human IgG/IgM binding to those tissues was also investigated, with wildtype pig tissues as control. The results showed that αGal, Neu5Gc, and Sd(a) were markedly positive in all the examined tissues in wildtype pigs but barely detected in TKO pigs. Compared to wildtype pigs, the liver, spleen, and pancreas of TKO pigs showed comparable levels of human IgG and IgM binding, whereas corneas, heart, lung, and kidney of TKO pigs exhibited significantly reduced human IgG and IgM binding. These results indicate that the antigenicity of TKO pig is significantly reduced and the remaining xenoantigens on porcine tissues can be eliminated via a gene targeting approach.
To evaluate the effect of methotrexate on collagen-induced arthritis, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological analyses were used in male Wistar rats. Rats were divided randomly into three groups. Group 1 was treated with 0.9% saline, and groups 2 and 3 were boosted with type Ⅱ collagen. From day 21 to 42, groups 1 and 2 were orally treated with 0.9% saline and group 3 was orally treated with 1.5 mg/kg methotrexate. All rats were sacrificed at day 42 after the first collagen treatment. Micro-CT analyses showed bony parameters, such as bone volume and trabecular number, were decreased in group 2 compared to group 1, and these parameters were recovered in group 3. Histopathological examination and pathological parameter scoring showed that the knee joints of rats in group 2 had severe joint destruction, showing cartilage and bone erosion, enlarged cavities with inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of synovial fibroblasts. By contrast, these changes were reduced in group 3. Taken together, methotrexate treatment showed therapeutic potential in male rat collagen-induced arthritis model, and micro-CT analysis and histopathological tools could be integrated to assess the quantification/qualification of arthritic lesions.
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is increasing at a rapid pace in developed countries, and CVDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Natural products and ethnomedicine have been shown to reduce the risk of CVDs. Schizonepeta (S.) tenuifolia is a medicinal plant widely used in China, Korea, and Japan and is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. We hypothesized that given herbal plant exhibit pharmacological activities against CVDs, we specifically explored its effects on platelet function. Platelet aggregation was evaluated using standard light transmission aggregometry. Intracellular calcium mobilization was assessed using Fura-2/AM, and granule secretion (ATP release) was measured in a luminometer. Fibrinogen binding to integrin αⅡbβ3, was assessed using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling molecules and activation of the protein kinase B (Akt) was assessed using Western blot assays. S. tenuifolia, extract potently and significantly inhibited platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, granule secretion, and fibrinogen binding to integrin αⅡbβ3. Moreover, all extracts significantly inhibited MAPK and Akt phosphorylation. S. tenuifolia extract inhibited platelet aggregation and granule secretion, and attenuated collagen mediated GPVI downstream signaling, indicating the potential therapeutic effects of these plant extracts on the cardiovascular system and platelet function. We suggest that S. tenuifolia extract may be a potent candidate to treat platelet-related CVDs and to be used as an antiplatelet and antithrombotic agent.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is defined as a cardiac dysfunction leading to low cardiac output and inadequate tissue perfusion. Intravenous positive inotropes are used to increase myocardial contractility in hospitalized patients with advanced heart failure. Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase Ⅲ inhibitor and used most commonly for inotropic effect. The well-known PROMISE study investigated the effects of milrinone on mortality in patients with severe CHF, and concluded that long-term therapy with milrinone increased morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced CHF. Previous studies have suggested that phosphodiesterase inhibitors can have potential effects on inflammatory pathways. Hence, we hypothesized that milrinone may alter inflammatory gene expressions in cardiomyocytes, thus leading to adverse clinical outcomes. We used rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 and studied the impact of exposing cardiomyocytes to milrinone (10 μmol/L) for 24 hours on inflammatory gene expressions. RNA extracted from cultured cardiomyocytes was used for whole rat genome gene expression assay (41 000 genes). The following changes in inflammatory response-related gene expressions were discovered. Genes with increased expressions included: THBS2 (+ 9.98), MMP2 (+3.47), DDIT3 (+2.39), and ADORA3 (+3.5). Genes with decreased expressions were: SPP1 (−5.28) and CD14 (−2.05). We found that the above mentioned gene expression changes seem to indicate that milrinone may hinder the inflammatory process which may potentially lead to adverse clinical outcomes. However, further in vivo and clinical investigations will be needed to illustrate the clinical relevance of these gene expression changes induced by milrinone.
Volatile anesthetic preconditioning has been shown to be a potent way to provide myocardium protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, this cardioprotection is lost in senescent animal models and elderly patients. NFκB-regulated genes have been linked to myocardial I/R injury and anesthetic preconditioning. Here, we investigated NFκB activation related to anesthetic preconditioning in aging rat myocardium. Isolated, Langendorff perfused rat hearts from Fischer 344 male rats, 24 months old, were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. The hearts of the control group were perfused with physiologic solution without any intervention. The hearts in the I/R group were subjected to 25 minutes ischemia and followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. The hearts in the treatment group were subjected to 10 minutes 2.5% sevoflurane, followed by 20 minutes washout and by 25 minutes ischemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion, respectively. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured. Western blot analysis was used to measure inhibitor of κB (IκB) and antiapoptotic genes: A1, ILP, c-IAP-2, Bcl-2, caspase 8 and caspase 9. Ischemia and reperfusion significantly decreased LVDP and increased LVEDP in aged rat hearts. Anesthetic preconditioning with sevoflurane did not change the effects I/R on LVDP and LVEDP, despite the fact that after treatment with anesthetic preconditioning, the levels of IκB, A1, ILP, caspase 8 and caspase 9 were significantly different compared to those of the control hearts. In conclusion, anesthetic preconditioning with sevoflurane does not improve myocardial systolic and diastolic functions. Our results suggest that the activation of NFκB regulated genes is different in the senescent myocardium and could account for loss of cardioprotection with aging.
Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been observed in the lesions of atherosclerosis and aneurysms; however, it is not fully understood whether macrophage-derived MMP-1 affects these diseases. To investigate whether macrophage-derived MMP-1 participates in the development of vascular diseases, we generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing human MMP-1 in the monocyte/macrophage lineage under the control of the human scavenger receptor enhancer/promoter. Tg rabbits exhibited no visible abnormalities throughout their bodies. Western blotting analysis revealed that the amount of MMP-1 proteins in the conditioned media secreted from peritoneal macrophages of Tg rabbits was up to 3-fold higher than that in non-Tg rabbits. For the first experiment, Tg and non-Tg rabbits were fed a cholesterol diet for 16 weeks, and aortic and coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated. The gross lesion area of aortic atherosclerosis in Tg rabbits was not significantly different from that in non-Tg rabbits, but Tg rabbits had marked destruction of the medial elastic lamina of the aortic lesions on microscopic examination. For the second experiment, we generated aortic aneurysms by incubating with elastase. Compared with non-Tg rabbits, Tg rabbits exhibited a significantly greater aortic dilation. Increased macrophage-derived MMP-1 led to increased medial destruction in both aortic atherosclerosis and aneurysms. These results demonstrate that MMP-1 plays a different role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
Contrary to freezing preservation and formalin embalming, Thiel embalmed cadaver presents soft texture and color very close to that of living organism, and many applications based on Thiel embalmed cadavers have been reported. However, Thiel embalmed cadavers cannot be used as reliable evaluation model for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) due to dramatic changes of electrical conductivity in the embalmed tissue. To address this issue, we investigated various modifications of the original Thiel embalming solution. By altering the chemicals' species and concentration we figured out a formula that can greatly reduce the embalming fluid's electrical conductivity without significantly compromising the 18-day embalmed kidney samples' suppleness and color. We also investigated a two-stage embalming technique by first submerging the kidney sample into original Thiel's tank fluid for 28 days, then the sample was withdrawn from the tank fluid and placed into modified dilution fluids for additional two weeks. Stiffening and discoloration occurred in these diluted samples implying the reversibility of Thiel-embalmed tissues' suppleness and color with the removal of the strong electrolytes. This study presents a modified embalming method which could be used for RFA evaluation and also helps our understanding of the mechanism of embalmment process.
Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage
Hanpeng Huang, Xiaoyu Li, Yan Zhuang, Nan Li, Xudong Zhu, Jin Hu, Jingjing Ben, Qing Yang, Hui Bai, Qi Chen
2014, 28(3): 213-221.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130105
+Abstract [PDF 11938KB](0)
Dual therapy of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone with glimepiride on diabetic nephropathy in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes rats
Ravi Prakash Rao, Ansima Singh, Arun K Jain, Bhartu Parsharthi Srinivasan
2011, 25(6): 411-417.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60054-7
+Abstract [PDF 1946KB](0)
A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems
Ritu MGilhotra, Mohd Ikram, Sunny Srivastava, Neeraj Gilhotra
2014, 28(2): 81-97.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120136
+Abstract [PDF 2322KB](0)
AEG-1 expression correlates with CD133 and PPP6c levels in human glioma tissues
Jia Guo, Xin Chen, Ruxing Xi, Yuwei Chang, Xuanwei Zhang, Xiaozhi Zhang
2014, 28(5): 388-395.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140015
+Abstract [PDF 14254KB](0)
Lipoprotein metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Zhenghui Gordon Jiang, Simon C. Robson, Zemin Yao
2013, 27(1): 1-13.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120077
+Abstract [PDF 1247KB](0)
ApoB/apoA1 is an effective predictor of coronary heart disease risk in overweight and obesity
Min Lu, Qun Lu, Yong Zhang, Gang Tian
2011, 25(4): 266-273.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60036-5
+Abstract [PDF 1143KB](0)
Development of Leishmania vaccines: predicting the future from past and present experience
Joshua Muli Mutiso, John Chege Macharia, Maria Ndunge Kiio, James Maina Ichagichu, Hitler Rikoi, Michael Muita Gicheru
2013, 27(2): 85-102.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120064
+Abstract [PDF 1050KB](0)
Atrial fibrillation
Thomas M. Munger, Li-Qun Wu, Win K. Shen
2014, 28(1): 1-17.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130191
+Abstract [PDF 5351KB](0)
Maternal risk factors for low birth weight for term births in a developed region in China: a hospital-based study of 55,633 pregnancies
Yihua Bian, Zhan Zhang, Qiao Liu, Di Wu, Shoulin Wang
2013, 27(1): 14-22.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120046
+Abstract [PDF 1263KB](0)
Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials
Ibrahim M. Hamouda, Salah H. Shehata
2011, 25(6): 418-424.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60055-9
+Abstract [PDF 762KB](0)