• ISSN 1674-8301
  • CN 32-1810/R
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is primarily accompanied by severe sepsis, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), encoded by Hsd11b1, is a reductase that can convert inactive cortisone into metabolically active cortisol. The role of 11β-HSD1 in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction remains poorly understood. The current study aims to investigate the effects of 11β-HSD1 on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. LPS (10 mg/kg) was administered to wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 11β-HSD1 global knockout mice. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining were performed to analyze myocardial mitochondrial injury and histological changes. The levels of reactive oxygen species and biomarkers of oxidative stress were determined. Polymerase chain reaction analysis, Western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were employed to determine the expression of related genes and proteins. To investigate the role of 11β-HSD1 in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, LPS was used to induce lentivirus-infected neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of 11β-HSD1 alleviated LPS-induced myocardial mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation, along with an improved myocardial function. Furthermore, the depletion of 11β-HSD1 promoted the phosphorylation of adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) protein levels both in vivo and in vitro. The suppression of 11β-HSD1 may be a viable strategy to improve cardiac function against endotoxemia challenges.
Inflammatory jaw bone diseases are common in stomatology, including periodontitis, peri-implantitis, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, radiation osteomyelitis of the jaw, age-related osteoporosis, and other specific infections. These diseases may lead to tooth loss and maxillofacial deformities, severely affecting patients' quality of life. Over the years, the reconstruction of jaw bone deficiency caused by inflammatory diseases has emerged as a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Therefore, exploring the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases associated with jaw bones is crucial for improving prognosis and developing new targeted therapies. Accumulating evidence indicates that the integrated bone formation and dysfunction arise from complex interactions among a network of multiple cell types, including osteoblast-associated cells, immune cells, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. However, the role of these different cells in the inflammatory process and the 'rules' with which they interact are still not fully understood. Although many investigations have focused on specific pathological processes and molecular events in inflammatory jaw diseases, few articles offer a perspective of integration. Here, we review the changes and mechanisms of various cell types in inflammatory jaw diseases, with the hope of providing insights to drive further research in this field.
Hepatoblastoma is the most frequent liver malignancy in children. HepG2 has been discovered as a hepatoblastoma-derived cell line and tends to form clumps in culture. Intriguingly, we observed that the addition of calcium ions reduced cell clumping and disassociated HepG2 cells. The calcium signal is in connection with a series of processes critical in the tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that extracellular calcium ions induced morphological changes and enhanced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HepG2 cells. Mechanistically, calcium ions promoted HepG2 proliferation and migration by up-regulating the phosphorylation levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), AKT, and p38. The inhibitor of FAK or CaMKⅡ reversed the effect of calcium on HepG2 cells. Moreover, calcium ions decreased cisplatin sensitivity to HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we found that FAK and CaMKⅡ were upregulated in hepatoblastoma. The group with high expression of FAK and CaMKⅡ exhibited significantly lower ImmunoScore as well as CD8+ T and NK cells. CaMKⅡ was positively correlated with PDCD1 and LAG3. Correspondingly, FAK was negatively correlated with TNFSF9, TNFRSF4, and TNFRSF18. Collectively, extracellular calcium accelerates HepG2 cell proliferation and migration via FAK and CaMKⅡ and enhances cisplatin resistance. FAK and CaMKⅡ shape immune cell infiltration and responses in tumor microenvironments, thereby serving as potential targets for hepatoblastoma.
In the current study, we introduced the H2O2-sensitive thiazolidinone moiety at the 4th amino group of gemcitabine (GEM) to synthesize a new target compound named GEM-ZZQ, and then we confirmed its chemical structure by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was further confirmed that GEM-ZZQ has a good chemical stability in different pH solutions in vitro and that it can be activated by H2O2 to release GEM. Pharmacodynamic studies revealed that the growth inhibition of human normal epithelial cells was weaker by GEM-ZZQ than by GEM and that the inhibition of various lung cancer cell lines by GEM-ZZQ was similar to that of GEM. For the lung cancer cell lines that are resistant to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting inhibitor osimertinib, GEM-ZZQ showed less growth inhibition than GEM; however, GEM-ZZQ in combination with cisplatin showed better synergistic effects than GEM in the low-dose groups. In summary, we provided a new anti-cancer compound GEM-ZZQ for treating lung cancer by modifying GEM structure.
Anti-cancer therapy often causes premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility as the ovarian follicle reserve is extremely sensitive to chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Various fertility preservation methods have been explored for women, especially prepubertal girls undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy due to cancer. In recent years, mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-exos) have been reported to play an important role in tissue repair and the treatment of various diseases. In the current study, we observed that human umbilical cord-derived MSC-exos (hucMSC-exos) after short-term culture improved follicular survival and development while receiving cisplatin treatment. Moreover, intravenous injection of hucMSC-exos improved ovarian function and ameliorated inflammatory environment within the ovary. The underlying mechanism of hucMSC-exos on fertility preservation was associated with the down-regulation of p53-related apoptosis and their anti-inflammatory function. Based on these findings, we propose that hucMSC-exos may be a potential approach to improve fertility in women diagnosed with cancer.
The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD), both associated with acute cardiac ischemia, are one of the leading causes of adult death in economically developed countries. The development of new approaches for the treatment and prevention of AMI and SCD remains the highest priority for medicine. A study on the cardiovascular effects of chronic hypoxia (CH) may contribute to the development of these methods. Chronic hypoxia exerts both positive and adverse effects. The positive effects are the infarct-reducing, vasoprotective, and antiarrhythmic effects, which can lead to the improvement of cardiac contractility in reperfusion. The adverse effects are pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. This review presents a comprehensive overview of how CH enhances cardiac tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion. It is an in-depth analysis of the published data on the underlying mechanisms, which can lead to future development of the cardioprotective effect of CH. A better understanding of the CH-activated protective signaling pathways may contribute to new therapeutic approaches in an increase of cardiac tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes irreversible blindness in people aged over 50 worldwide. The dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium is the primary cause of atrophic AMD. In the current study, we used ComBat and Training Distribution Matching to integrate data obtained from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. Integrated sequencing data were analyzed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Peroxisome and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were among the top 10 pathways and were selected to construct AMD cell models to identify differentially expressed circular RNAs (circRNAs). A competing endogenous RNA network, related to differentially expressed circRNAs, was then constructed. This network included seven circRNAs, 15 microRNAs, and 82 mRNAs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis (KEGG) of mRNAs in this network showed that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is a common downstream event. The results of the current study may provide insights into the pathological processes that cause atrophic AMD.
To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of establishing porcine ischemia-reperfusion models by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, we first randomly divided 16 male Bama pigs into a sham group and a model group. After anesthesia, we separated the arteries and veins. Subsequently, we rapidly located the LAD coronary artery at the beginning of its first diagonal branch through a mid-chest incision. Then, we loosened and released the ligation line after five minutes of pre-occlusion. Finally, we ligated the LAD coronary artery in situ two minutes later and loosened the ligature 60 min after ischemia. Compared with the sham group, electrocardiogram showed multiple continuous lead ST-segment elevations, and ultrasound cardiogram showed significantly lower ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening at one hour and seven days post-operation in the model group. Twenty-four hours after the operation, cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme levels significantly increased in the model group, compared with the sham group. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed the presence of many inflammatory cells infiltrating the interstitium of the myocardium in the model group but not in the sham group. Masson staining revealed a significant increase in infarct size in the ischemia/reperfusion group. All eight pigs in the model group recovered with normal sinus heart rates, and the survival rate was 100%. In conclusion, the method can provide an accurate and stable large animal model for preclinical research on ischemia/reperfusion with a high success rate and homogeneity of the myocardial infarction area.
The Journal of Biomedical Research--2023, 37(3)
Review Article
An emerging concept termed the neurovascular unit (NVU) underlines neurovascular coupling. It has been reported that NVU impairment can result in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Aging is a complex and irreversible process caused by programmed and damage-related factors. Loss of biological functions and increased susceptibility to additional neurodegenerative diseases are major characteristics of aging. In this review, we describe the basics of the NVU and discuss the effect of aging on NVU basics. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms that increase NVU susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Finally, we discuss new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and methods of maintaining an intact NVU that may delay or diminish aging.
Original Article
Although vaccines have been developed, mutations of SARS-CoV-2, especially the dominant B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.529 (omicron) strains with more than 30 mutations on their spike protein, have caused a significant decline in prophylaxis, calling for the need for drug improvement. Antibodies are drugs preferentially used in infectious diseases and are easy to get from immunized organisms. The current study combined molecular modeling and single memory B cell sequencing to assess candidate sequences before experiments, providing a strategy for the fabrication of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. A total of 128 sequences were obtained after sequencing 196 memory B cells, and 42 sequences were left after merging extremely similar ones and discarding incomplete ones, followed by homology modeling of the antibody variable region. Thirteen candidate sequences were expressed, of which three were tested positive for receptor binding domain recognition but only one was confirmed as having broad neutralization against several SARS-CoV-2 variants. The current study successfully obtained a SARS-CoV-2 antibody with broad neutralizing abilities and provided a strategy for antibody development in emerging infectious diseases using single memory B cell BCR sequencing and computer assistance in antibody fabrication.
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A3 (EphA3) is a member of the largest subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors—Eph receptors. Previous studies have shown that EphA3 is associated with tissue development. Recently, we have found that the expression of EphA3 is elevated in the hypothalamus of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). However, the role of EphA3 in hypothalamic-controlled energy metabolism remains unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that the deletion of EphA3 in the hypothalamus by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing promotes obesity in male mice with high-fat diet feeding rather than those with normal chow diet feeding. Moreover, the deletion of hypothalamic EphA3 promotes high-fat DIO by increasing food intake and reducing energy expenditure. Knockdown of EphA3 leads to smaller intracellular vesicles in GT1-7 cells. The current study reveals that hypothalamic EphA3 plays important roles in promoting DIO.
To overcome immune tolerance to cancer, the immune system needs to be exposed to a multi-target action intervention. Here, we investigated the activating effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), mesyl phosphoramidate CpG ODNs, anti-OX40 antibodies, and OX40 RNA aptamers on major populations of immunocompetent cells ex vivo. Comparative analysis of the antitumor effects of in situ vaccination with CpG ODNs and anti-OX40 antibodies, as well as several other combinations, such as mesyl phosphoramidate CpG ODNs and OX40 RNA aptamers, was conducted. Antibodies against programmed death 1 (PD1) checkpoint inhibitors or their corresponding PD1 DNA aptamers were also added to vaccination regimens for analytical purposes. Four scenarios were considered: a weakly immunogenic Krebs-2 carcinoma grafted in CBA mice; a moderately immunogenic Lewis carcinoma grafted in C57Black/6 mice; and an immunogenic A20 B cell lymphoma or an Ehrlich carcinoma grafted in BALB/c mice. Adding anti-PD1 antibodies (CpG+αOX40+αPD1) to in situ vaccinations boosts the antitumor effect. When to be used instead of antibodies, aptamers also possess antitumor activity, although this effect was less pronounced. The strongest effect across all the tumors was observed in highly immunogenic A20 B cell lymphoma and Ehrlich carcinoma.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play an important role in tumor metastases, which is positively correlated with an increased risk of death. Actin-binding proteins, including cofilin (CFL1), profilin 1 (PFN1), and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), are thought to be involved in tumor cell motility and metastasis, specifically in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, currently, there are no published studies on CFL1, PFN1, and CAP1 in CTCs and leukocytes in HNSCC patients. We assessed serum levels of CFL1, PFN1, and CAP1 and the number of CTCs and leukocytes containing these proteins in blood from 31 HNSCC patients (T1–4N0–2M0). The analysis used flow cytometry and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. We found that CAP1+ CTCs and CAP1+ leukocyte subpopulations were prevalent in these HNSCC patient samples, while the prevalence rates of CFL1+ and PFN1+ CTCs were relatively low. Patients with stage T2–4N1–2M0 had CFL1+ and PFN1+ CTCs with an elevated PFN1 serum level, compared with the T1–3N0M0 group. In summary, the PFN1 serum level and the relative number of PFN1+CD326+ CTCs could be valuable prognostic markers for HNSCC metastases. The current study is the first to obtain data regarding the contents of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) in CTCs, and leukocytes in blood from HNSCC patients. This is also the first to assess the relationship between the number of CTCs subgroups and disease characteristics.
Letter to the Editor
Myocardin in biology and disease
Joseph M. Miano
2015, 29(1): 3-19.   doi: 10.7555/JBR. 29.20140151
+Abstract PDF 5076KB
Exosomes and their role in the micro-/macro-environment: a comprehensive review
Naureen Javeed, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay
2017, 31(5): 386-394.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150162
+Abstract PDF 185KB
Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy
Eika S. Webb, Peng Liu, Renato Baleeiro, Nicholas R. Lemoine, Ming Yuan, Yaohe Wang
2018, 32(5): 317-326.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160168
+Abstract PDF 275KB
GYY4137 protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats
Guoliang Meng, Jing Wang, Yujiao Xiao, Wenli Bai, Liping Xie, Liyang Shan, Philip K Moore, Yong Ji
2015, 29(3): 203-213.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140037
+Abstract PDF 2347KB
Platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis: Novel mechanisms of fibrinogen-independent platelet aggregation and fibronectinmediated protein wave of hemostasis
Yan Hou, Naadiya Carrim, Yiming Wang, Reid C. Gallant, Alexandra Marshall, Heyu Ni
2015, 29(6): 437-444.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20150121
+Abstract PDF 610KB
Statistical analysis for genome-wide association study
Ping Zeng, Yang Zhao, Cheng Qian, Liwei Zhang, Ruyang Zhang, Jianwei Gou, Jin Liu, Liya Liu, Feng Chen
2015, 29(4): 285-297.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140007
+Abstract PDF 3937KB
Recent advances in targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis in vivo
Matthew G.K. Benesch, Xiaoyun Tang, Ganesh Venkatraman, Raie T. Bekele, David N. Brindley
2016, 30(4): 272-284.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150058
+Abstract PDF 462KB
Autoantibodies in Alzheimer's disease: potential biomarkers, pathogenic roles, and therapeutic implications
Jianming Wu, Ling Li
2016, 30(5): 361-372.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150131
+Abstract PDF 426KB
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in liver transplant setting: mechanisms and protective strategies
Rampes Sanketh, Ma Daqing
2019, 33(4): 221-234.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.32.20180087
+Abstract + HTML PDF 1187KB
Translating transitions - how to decipher peripheral human B cell development
Mats Bemark
2015, 29(4): 264-284.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20150035
+Abstract PDF 858KB
Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage
Hanpeng Huang, Xiaoyu Li, Yan Zhuang, Nan Li, Xudong Zhu, Jin Hu, Jingjing Ben, Qing Yang, Hui Bai, Qi Chen
2014, 28(3): 213-221.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130105
+Abstract [PDF 11939KB](996)
Dual therapy of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone with glimepiride on diabetic nephropathy in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes rats
Ravi Prakash Rao, Ansima Singh, Arun K Jain, Bhartu Parsharthi Srinivasan
2011, 25(6): 411-417.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60054-7
+Abstract [PDF 1947KB](924)
A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems
Ritu MGilhotra, Mohd Ikram, Sunny Srivastava, Neeraj Gilhotra
2014, 28(2): 81-97.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120136
+Abstract [PDF 2323KB](1116)
AEG-1 expression correlates with CD133 and PPP6c levels in human glioma tissues
Jia Guo, Xin Chen, Ruxing Xi, Yuwei Chang, Xuanwei Zhang, Xiaozhi Zhang
2014, 28(5): 388-395.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140015
+Abstract [PDF 14254KB](995)
Lipoprotein metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Zhenghui Gordon Jiang, Simon C. Robson, Zemin Yao
2013, 27(1): 1-13.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120077
+Abstract [PDF 1247KB](1345)
ApoB/apoA1 is an effective predictor of coronary heart disease risk in overweight and obesity
Min Lu, Qun Lu, Yong Zhang, Gang Tian
2011, 25(4): 266-273.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60036-5
+Abstract [PDF 4KB](950)
Development of Leishmania vaccines: predicting the future from past and present experience
Joshua Muli Mutiso, John Chege Macharia, Maria Ndunge Kiio, James Maina Ichagichu, Hitler Rikoi, Michael Muita Gicheru
2013, 27(2): 85-102.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120064
+Abstract [PDF 4KB](1268)
Atrial fibrillation
Thomas M. Munger, Li-Qun Wu, Win K. Shen
2014, 28(1): 1-17.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130191
+Abstract [PDF 5352KB](2002)
Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials
Ibrahim M. Hamouda, Salah H. Shehata
2011, 25(6): 418-424.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60055-9
+Abstract [PDF 763KB](910)
Maternal risk factors for low birth weight for term births in a developed region in China: a hospital-based study of 55,633 pregnancies
Yihua Bian, Zhan Zhang, Qiao Liu, Di Wu, Shoulin Wang
2013, 27(1): 14-22.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120046
+Abstract [PDF 4KB](1006)