• ISSN 1674-8301
  • CN 32-1810/R
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
In post-menopausal women, intra-mammary estrogen, which is converted from extra-ovarian estrone (E1), promotes the growth of breast cancer. Since the aromatase inhibitor letrozole does not suppress 17β-estradiol (E2) production from E1, high intra-mammary E1 concentrations impair letrozole's therapeutic efficacy. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1) is a non-classical progesterone receptor associated with breast cancer progression. In the present study, we introduced a Pgrmc1 heterozygous knockout (hetero KO) murine model exhibiting low Pgrmc1 expression, and observed estrogen levels and steroidogenic gene expression. Naïve Pgrmc1 hetero KO mice exhibited low estrogen (E2 and E1) levels and low progesterone receptor (PR) expression, compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, Pgrmc1 hetero KO mice that have been ovariectomized (OVX), including letrozole-treated OVX mice (OVX-letrozole), exhibited high estrogen levels and PR expression. Increased extra-ovarian estrogen production in Pgrmc1 hetero KO mice was observed with the induction of steroid sulfatase (STS). In MCF-7 cell, letrozole suppressed PR expression, but PGRMC1 knockdown increased PR and STS expression. Our presented results highlight the important role of Pgrmc1 in modulating estrogen production when ovary-derived estrogen is limited, thereby suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for letrozole resistance.
Current cell-based biosensors have progressed substantially from mere alternatives to molecular bioreceptors into enabling tools for interfacing molecular machineries and gene circuits with microelectronics and for developing groundbreaking sensing and theragnostic platforms. The recent literature concerning whole-cell biosensors is reviewed with an emphasis on mammalian cells, and the challenges and breakthroughs brought along in biomedical analyses through novel biosensing concepts and the synthetic biology toolbox. These recent innovations allow development of cell-based biosensing platforms having tailored performances and capable to reach the levels of sensitivity, dynamic range, and stability suitable for high analytic/medical relevance. They also pave the way for the construction of flexible biosensing platforms with utility across biological research and clinical applications. The work is intended to stimulate interest in generation of cell-based biosensors and improve their acceptance and exploitation.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor prognosis and typically earlier onset of metastasis in comparison with other breast cancer subtypes. It has been reported that insulin receptor (INSR) is downregulated in TNBC, however, its clinical significance and functions in TNBC remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that INSR expression was significantly downregulated in TNBC, and overexpression of INSR suppressed cell migration and invasion in TNBC. In addition, the survival rate of breast cancer patients with low INSR expression was lower than that of patients with high INSR expression. INSR expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, clinical tumor stages, ER status, PR status, and the proliferation index Ki-67 expression. In summary, our study suggests that INSR may serve as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and it may be a potential target for TNBC treatment.
Magnetic particle-based immunoassays are widely used in microbiology-related assays for both microbial capture, separation, analysis, and detection. Besides facilitating sample operation, the implementation of micro-to-nanometer scale magnetic beads as a solid support potentially shortens the incubation time (for magnetic immuno capture) from several hours to less than an hour. Analytical technologies based on magnetic beads offer a rapid, effective and inexpensive way to separate and concentrate the target analytes prior to detection. Magneto-immuno separation uses magnetic particles coated with specific antibodies to capture target microorganisms, bear the corresponding antigens, and subsequently separate them from the sample matrix in a magnetic field. The method has been proven effective in separating various types of pathogenic bacteria from environmental water samples and in eliminating background interferences. Magnetic particles are often used to capture target cells (pathogenic bacteria) from samples. In most commercially available assays, the actual identification and quantitation of the captured cells is then performed by classical microbiological assays. This review highlights the most sensitive analytic methods (i.e., long-range surface plasmon resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) to detect magnetically tagged bacteria in conjunction with magnetic actuation.
Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, chronic, non-specific, and immunologically devastating disease of periodontal tissues, caused by microbial infection. This study aims to examine the efficacy and protective mechanism of triclosan (TCS), a bisphenolic, non-cationic component of oral care products, against periodontal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide purified from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG). TCS markedly downregulated IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15 in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) treated with LPS-PG. By using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach, 318 differentially expressed proteins (161 upregulated and 157 downregulated) were identified in TCS-pretreated HPDLFs. TCS upregulated HSPA5 and HSP90B1 but downregulated HSPA2. Besides, TCS upregulated miR-548i in HPDLFs, which downregulated IL-15. These results indicate that TCS attenuates the activation of HPDLFs and downregulates the inflammatory cytokines through various mechanisms, thus highlighting its protective role in periodontal inflammation.
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) contributes to the increasing detection of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). Nevertheless, its value for differentiating pathological tumor grades is not well recognized. In this report, we have conducted a retrospective study on the relationship between the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and CT imaging features in 94 patients. Most of the investigated features eventually provided statistically significant indicators for discerning PNENs G3 from PNENs G1/G2, including tumor size, shape, margin, heterogeneity, intratumoral blood vessels, vascular invasion, enhancement pattern in both contrast phases, enhancement degree in both phases, tumor-to-pancreas contrast ratio in both phases, common bile duct dilatation, lymph node metastases, and liver metastases. Ill-defined tumor margin was an independent predictor for PNENs G3 with the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.906 in the multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The portal enhancement ratio (PER) was shown the highest AUC of 0.855 in terms of quantitative features. Our data suggest that the traditional contrast-enhanced CT still plays a vital role in differentiation of tumor grades and heterogeneity analysis prior to treatment.
Obesity is an escalating global pandemic posing a serious threat to human health. The intervention therapy using weight-reducing drugs, accompanied by lifestyle modification, is a strategy for the treatment of obesity. In the present study, we explored the role of fucoidan, a seaweed compound, on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. We found that fucoidan treatment significantly reduced the body fat and caused redistribution of visceral and subcutaneous fat in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, fucoidan treatment inhibited adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that fucoidan may be a promising treatment for obesity and obesity-induced complications.
Mechanotransduction, a conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for human development and physiology. It is observable at all levels ranging from the whole body, organs, tissues, organelles down to molecules. Dysregulation results in various diseases such as muscular dystrophies, hypertension-induced vascular and cardiac hypertrophy, altered bone repair and cell deaths. Since mechanotransduction occurs at nanoscale, nanosciences and applied nanotechnology are powerful for studying molecular mechanisms and pathways of mechanotransduction. Atomic force microscopy, magnetic and optical tweezers are commonly used for force measurement and manipulation at the single molecular level. Force is also used to control cells, topographically and mechanically by specific types of nano materials for tissue engineering. Mechanotransduction research will become increasingly important as a sub-discipline under nanomedicine. Here we review nanotechnology approaches using force measurements and manipulations at the molecular and cellular levels during mechanotransduction, which has been increasingly play important role in the advancement of nanomedicine.
Arrhythmias are very common in healthy population as well as patients with cardiovascular diseases. Among them, atrial fibrillation (AF) and malignant ventricular arrhythmias are usually associated with some clinical events. Early diagnosis of arrhythmias, particularly AF and ventricular arrhythmias, is very important for the treatment and prognosis of patients. Holter is a gold standard commonly recommended for noninvasive detection of paroxysmal arrhythmia. However, it has some shortcomings such as fixed detection timings, delayed report and inability of remote real-time detection. To deal with such problems, we designed and applied a new wearable 72-hour triple-lead H3-ECG device with a remote cloud-based ECG platform and an expert-supporting system. In this study, 31 patients were recruited and 24-hour synchronous ECG data by H3-ECG and Holter were recorded. In H3-ECG group, the ECG signals were transmitted using remote real-time modes, and confirmed reports were made by doctors in the remote expert-supporting system, while the traditional modes and detection systems were used in Holter group. The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in 24-hour total heart rate (HR), averaged HR, maximum HR, minimum HR, premature atrial complexes (PACs) and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) (P > 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of capture and remote automatic cardiac events detection of PACs, PVCs, and AF by H3-ECG were 93% and 99%, 98% and 99%, 94% and 98%, respectively. Therefore, the long-term limb triple-lead H3-ECG device can be utilized for domiciliary ECG self-monitoring and remote management of patients with common arrhythmia under medical supervision.
Accurate targeting of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) to synaptic vesicles (SVs) is indispensable for efficient cholinergic transmission. Previous studies have suggested that the dileucine motif within the C-terminus of the transporter is sufficient for its targeting to SVs. However, the cytosolic mechanism underlying specific regulation of VAChT trafficking and targeting to SVs is still unclear. Here we use the C-terminus of VAChT as bait in a yeast-two-hybrid screen to identify sorting nexin 5 (SNX5) as its novel interacting protein. SNX5 is detected in the SVs enriched LP2 subcellular fraction of rat brain homogenate and shows strong colocalization with VAChT in both brain sections and PC12 cells. Binding assays suggest that the C-terminal domain of VAChT can interact with both BAR and PX domain of SNX5. Depletion of SNX5 enhances the degradation of VAChT and the process is mediated through the lysosomal pathway. More importantly, we find that, in PC12 cells, the depletion of SNX5 expression significantly decreases the synaptic vesicle-like vesicles (SVLVs) localization of VAChT. Therefore, the results suggest that SNX5 is a novel regulator for both stability and SV targeting of VAChT.
The Journal of Biomedical Research--2021, 35(2)
Editorial Commentary
Review Article
Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models are commonly used in biomedical research. Generating GEMs involve complex set of experimental procedures requiring sophisticated equipment and highly skilled technical staff. Because of these reasons, most research institutes set up centralized core facilities where custom GEMs are created for research groups. Researchers, on the other hand, when they begin thinking about generating GEMs for their research, several questions arise in their minds. For example, what type of model(s) would be best useful for my research, how do I design them, what are the latest technologies and tools available for developing my model(s), and finally how to breed GEMs in my research. As there are several considerations and options in mouse designs, and as it is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor, careful planning upfront can ensure the highest chance of success. In this article, we provide brief answers to several frequently asked questions that arise when researchers begin thinking about generating mouse model(s) for their work.
The discovery and utilization of RNA-guided surveillance complexes, such as CRISPR-Cas9, for sequence-specific DNA or RNA cleavage, has revolutionised the process of gene modification or knockdown. To optimise the use of this technology, an exploratory race has ensued to discover or develop new RNA-guided endonucleases with the most flexible sequence targeting requirements, coupled with high cleavage efficacy and specificity. Here we review the constraints of existing gene editing and assess the merits of exploiting the diversity of CRISPR-Cas effectors as a methodology for surmounting these limitations.
Genome editing has undergone rapid development in recent years, yielding new approaches to make precise changes in genes. In this review, we discuss the development of various adenine and cytosine base-editing technologies, which share the ability to make specific base changes at specific sites in the genome. We also describe multiple applications of base editing in vitro and in vivo. Finally, as a practical example, we demonstrate the use of a cytosine base editor and an adenine base editor in human cells to introduce and then correct a prevalent mutation responsible for hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.
With advancements in gene editing technologies, our ability to make precise and efficient modifications to the genome is increasing at a remarkable rate, paving the way for scientists and clinicians to uniquely treat a multitude of previously irremediable diseases. CRISPR-Cas9, short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9, is a gene editing platform with the ability to alter the nucleotide sequence of the genome in living cells. This technology is increasing the number and pace at which new gene editing treatments for genetic disorders are moving toward the clinic. The β-hemoglobinopathies are a group of monogenic diseases, which despite their high prevalence and chronic debilitating nature, continue to have few therapeutic options available. In this review, we will discuss our existing comprehension of the genetics and current state of treatment for β-hemoglobinopathies, consider potential genome editing therapeutic strategies, and provide an overview of the current state of clinical trials using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.
The rabbit has been recognized as a valuable model in various biomedical and biological research fields because of its intermediate size and phylogenetic proximity to primates. However, the technology for precise genome manipulations in rabbit has been stalled for decades, severely limiting its applications in biomedical research. Novel genome editing technologies, especially CRISPR/Cas9, have remarkably enhanced precise genome manipulation in rabbits, and shown their superiority and promise for generating rabbit models of human genetic diseases. In this review, we summarize the brief history of transgenic rabbit technology and the development of novel genome editing technologies in rabbits.
There are an estimated 10 000 monogenic diseases affecting tens of millions of individuals worldwide. The application of CRISPR/Cas genome editing tools to treat monogenic diseases is an emerging strategy with the potential to generate personalized treatment approaches for these patients. CRISPR/Cas-based systems are programmable and sequence-specific genome editing tools with the capacity to generate base pair resolution manipulations to DNA or RNA. The complexity of genomic insults resulting in heritable disease requires patient-specific genome editing strategies with consideration of DNA repair pathways, and CRISPR/Cas systems of different types, species, and those with additional enzymatic capacity and/or delivery methods. In this review we aim to discuss broad and multifaceted therapeutic applications of CRISPR/Cas gene editing systems including in harnessing of homology directed repair, non-homologous end joining, microhomology-mediated end joining, and base editing to permanently correct diverse monogenic diseases.
Original Article
Since genetic engineering of pigs can benefit both biomedicine and agriculture, selecting a suitable gene promoter is critically important. The cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, which can robustly drive ubiquitous transgene expression, is commonly used at present, yet recent reports suggest tissue-specific activity in the pig. The objective of this study was to quantify ZsGreen1 protein (in lieu of CMV promoter activity) in tissues from pigs harboring a CMV-ZsGreen1 transgene with a single integration site. Tissue samples (n=35) were collected from neonatal hemizygous (n=3) and homozygous (n=3) piglets and ZsGreen1 abundance was determined via immunoblotting. ZsGreen1 was detected in all tissues, except hypothalamus, kidney cortex and oviduct. The expression patterns of homozygous and hemizygous piglets were similar (P>0.05). However, quantification revealed that ZsGreen1 protein levels were tissue-specific. Within neural/endocrine tissues, ZsGreen1 abundance was highest in the anterior pituitary gland, intermediate in the cerebellum and lowest in the cerebrum, spinal cord and posterior pituitary (P<0.05). In the digestive system, ZsGreen1 was more abundant in the salivary gland than esophagus, stomach, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, spleen, colon, gallbladder and liver (P<0.05). Interestingly, ZsGreen1 amounts also differed within an organ (i.e., the right ventricle had 3-fold higher levels than the other heart chambers; P<0.05). These results provide useful information for the use of the CMV promoter to drive transgene expression in the pig. Moreover, this swine model represents a novel resource of ZsGreen1-labeled organs and a valuable tool to advance genome editing research.
Letter to the Editor
Myocardin in biology and disease
Joseph M. Miano
2015, 29(1): 3-19.   doi: 10.7555/JBR. 29.20140151
+Abstract PDF 5076KB
GYY4137 protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats
Guoliang Meng, Jing Wang, Yujiao Xiao, Wenli Bai, Liping Xie, Liyang Shan, Philip K Moore, Yong Ji
2015, 29(3): 203-213.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140037
+Abstract PDF 2347KB
Exosomes and their role in the micro-/macro-environment: a comprehensive review
Naureen Javeed, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay
2017, 31(5): 386-394.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150162
+Abstract PDF 185KB
Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy
Eika S. Webb, Peng Liu, Renato Baleeiro, Nicholas R. Lemoine, Ming Yuan, Yaohe Wang
2018, 32(5): 317-326.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160168
+Abstract PDF 275KB
Recent advances in targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis in vivo
Matthew G.K. Benesch, Xiaoyun Tang, Ganesh Venkatraman, Raie T. Bekele, David N. Brindley
2016, 30(4): 272-284.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150058
+Abstract PDF 462KB
Statistical analysis for genome-wide association study
Ping Zeng, Yang Zhao, Cheng Qian, Liwei Zhang, Ruyang Zhang, Jianwei Gou, Jin Liu, Liya Liu, Feng Chen
2015, 29(4): 285-297.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140007
+Abstract PDF 3937KB
Translating transitions - how to decipher peripheral human B cell development
Mats Bemark
2015, 29(4): 264-284.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20150035
+Abstract PDF 858KB
Autoantibodies in Alzheimer's disease: potential biomarkers, pathogenic roles, and therapeutic implications
Jianming Wu, Ling Li
2016, 30(5): 361-372.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150131
+Abstract PDF 426KB
Osthole inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
Lintao Wang, Yanyan Peng, Kaikai Shi, Haixiao Wang, Jianlei Lu, Yanli Li, Changyan Ma
2015, 29(2): 132-138.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120115
+Abstract PDF 1282KB
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity accounts for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A
Fang Chen, Libin Zhou, Yinyang Bai, Rong Zhou, Ling Chen
2015, 29(3): 250-258.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140058
+Abstract PDF 1060KB
Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage
Hanpeng Huang, Xiaoyu Li, Yan Zhuang, Nan Li, Xudong Zhu, Jin Hu, Jingjing Ben, Qing Yang, Hui Bai, Qi Chen
2014, 28(3): 213-221.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130105
+Abstract [PDF 11939KB](767)
Dual therapy of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone with glimepiride on diabetic nephropathy in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes rats
Ravi Prakash Rao, Ansima Singh, Arun K Jain, Bhartu Parsharthi Srinivasan
2011, 25(6): 411-417.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60054-7
+Abstract [PDF 1947KB](690)
A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems
Ritu MGilhotra, Mohd Ikram, Sunny Srivastava, Neeraj Gilhotra
2014, 28(2): 81-97.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120136
+Abstract [PDF 2323KB](776)
AEG-1 expression correlates with CD133 and PPP6c levels in human glioma tissues
Jia Guo, Xin Chen, Ruxing Xi, Yuwei Chang, Xuanwei Zhang, Xiaozhi Zhang
2014, 28(5): 388-395.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140015
+Abstract [PDF 14254KB](759)
Lipoprotein metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Zhenghui Gordon Jiang, Simon C. Robson, Zemin Yao
2013, 27(1): 1-13.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120077
+Abstract [PDF 1247KB](749)
ApoB/apoA1 is an effective predictor of coronary heart disease risk in overweight and obesity
Min Lu, Qun Lu, Yong Zhang, Gang Tian
2011, 25(4): 266-273.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60036-5
+Abstract [PDF 1144KB](696)
Development of Leishmania vaccines: predicting the future from past and present experience
Joshua Muli Mutiso, John Chege Macharia, Maria Ndunge Kiio, James Maina Ichagichu, Hitler Rikoi, Michael Muita Gicheru
2013, 27(2): 85-102.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120064
+Abstract [PDF 1050KB](801)
Atrial fibrillation
Thomas M. Munger, Li-Qun Wu, Win K. Shen
2014, 28(1): 1-17.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130191
+Abstract [PDF 5352KB](900)
Maternal risk factors for low birth weight for term births in a developed region in China: a hospital-based study of 55,633 pregnancies
Yihua Bian, Zhan Zhang, Qiao Liu, Di Wu, Shoulin Wang
2013, 27(1): 14-22.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120046
+Abstract [PDF 1263KB](734)
Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials
Ibrahim M. Hamouda, Salah H. Shehata
2011, 25(6): 418-424.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60055-9
+Abstract [PDF 763KB](689)