• ISSN 1674-8301
  • CN 32-1810/R
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) contributes to the increasing detection of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). Nevertheless, its value for differentiating pathological tumor grades is not well recognized. In this report, we have conducted a retrospective study on the relationship between the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and CT imaging features in 94 patients. Most of the investigated features eventually provided statistically significant indicators for discerning PNENs G3 from PNENs G1/G2, including tumor size, shape, margin, heterogeneity, intratumoral blood vessels, vascular invasion, enhancement pattern in both contrast phases, enhancement degree in both phases, tumor-to-pancreas contrast ratio in both phases, common bile duct dilatation, lymph node metastases, and liver metastases. Ill-defined tumor margin was an independent predictor for PNENs G3 with the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.906 in the multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The portal enhancement ratio (PER) was shown the highest AUC of 0.855 in terms of quantitative features. Our data suggest that the traditional contrast-enhanced CT still plays a vital role in differentiation of tumor grades and heterogeneity analysis prior to treatment.
Obesity is an escalating global pandemic posing a serious threat to human health. The intervention therapy using weight-reducing drugs, accompanied by lifestyle modification, is a strategy for the treatment of obesity. In the present study, we explored the role of fucoidan, a seaweed compound, on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. We found that fucoidan treatment significantly reduced the body fat and caused redistribution of visceral and subcutaneous fat in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, fucoidan treatment inhibited adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that fucoidan may be a promising treatment for obesity and obesity-induced complications.
There are an estimated 10 000 monogenic diseases affecting tens of millions of individuals worldwide. The application of CRISPR/Cas genome editing tools to treat monogenic diseases is an emerging strategy with the potential to generate personalized treatment approaches for these patients. CRISPR/Cas-based systems are programmable and sequence-specific genome editing tools with the capacity to generate base pair resolution manipulations to DNA or RNA. The complexity of genomic insults resulting in heritable disease requires patient-specific genome editing strategies with consideration of DNA repair pathways, and CRISPR/Cas systems of different types, species, and those with additional enzymatic capacity and/or delivery methods. In this review we aim to discuss broad and multifaceted therapeutic applications of CRISPR/Cas gene editing systems including in harnessing of homology directed repair, non-homologous end joining, microhomology-mediated end joining, and base editing to permanently correct diverse monogenic diseases.
With advancements in gene editing technologies, our ability to make precise and efficient modifications to the genome is increasing at a remarkable rate, paving the way for scientists and clinicians to uniquely treat a multitude of previously irremediable diseases. CRISPR-Cas9, short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9, is a gene editing platform with the ability to alter the nucleotide sequence of the genome in living cells. This technology is increasing the number and pace at which new gene editing treatments for genetic disorders are moving toward the clinic. The β-hemoglobinopathies are a group of monogenic diseases, which despite their high prevalence and chronic debilitating nature, continue to have few therapeutic options available. In this review, we will discuss our existing comprehension of the genetics and current state of treatment for β-hemoglobinopathies, consider potential genome editing therapeutic strategies, and provide an overview of the current state of clinical trials using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.
Mechanotransduction, a conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for human development and physiology. It is observable at all levels ranging from the whole body, organs, tissues, organelles down to molecules. Dysregulation results in various diseases such as muscular dystrophies, hypertension-induced vascular and cardiac hypertrophy, altered bone repair and cell deaths. Since mechanotransduction occurs at nanoscale, nanosciences and applied nanotechnology are powerful for studying molecular mechanisms and pathways of mechanotransduction. Atomic force microscopy, magnetic and optical tweezers are commonly used for force measurement and manipulation at the single molecular level. Force is also used to control cells, topographically and mechanically by specific types of nano materials for tissue engineering. Mechanotransduction research will become increasingly important as a sub-discipline under nanomedicine. Here we review nanotechnology approaches using force measurements and manipulations at the molecular and cellular levels during mechanotransduction, which has been increasingly play important role in the advancement of nanomedicine.
Arrhythmias are very common in healthy population as well as patients with cardiovascular diseases. Among them, atrial fibrillation (AF) and malignant ventricular arrhythmias are usually associated with some clinical events. Early diagnosis of arrhythmias, particularly AF and ventricular arrhythmias, is very important for the treatment and prognosis of patients. Holter is a gold standard commonly recommended for noninvasive detection of paroxysmal arrhythmia. However, it has some shortcomings such as fixed detection timings, delayed report and inability of remote real-time detection. To deal with such problems, we designed and applied a new wearable 72-hour triple-lead H3-ECG device with a remote cloud-based ECG platform and an expert-supporting system. In this study, 31 patients were recruited and 24-hour synchronous ECG data by H3-ECG and Holter were recorded. In H3-ECG group, the ECG signals were transmitted using remote real-time modes, and confirmed reports were made by doctors in the remote expert-supporting system, while the traditional modes and detection systems were used in Holter group. The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in 24-hour total heart rate (HR), averaged HR, maximum HR, minimum HR, premature atrial complexes (PACs) and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) (P > 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of capture and remote automatic cardiac events detection of PACs, PVCs, and AF by H3-ECG were 93% and 99%, 98% and 99%, 94% and 98%, respectively. Therefore, the long-term limb triple-lead H3-ECG device can be utilized for domiciliary ECG self-monitoring and remote management of patients with common arrhythmia under medical supervision.
Genome editing has undergone rapid development in recent years, yielding new approaches to make precise changes in genes. In this review, we discuss the development of various adenine and cytosine base-editing technologies, which share the ability to make specific base changes at specific sites in the genome. We also describe multiple applications of base editing in vitro and in vivo. Finally, as a practical example, we demonstrate the use of a cytosine base editor and an adenine base editor in human cells to introduce and then correct a prevalent mutation responsible for hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.
The rabbit has been recognized as a valuable model in various biomedical and biological research fields because of its intermediate size and phylogenetic proximity to primates. However, the technology for precise genome manipulations in rabbit has been stalled for decades, severely limiting its applications in biomedical research. Novel genome editing technologies, especially CRISPR/Cas9, have remarkably enhanced precise genome manipulation in rabbits, and shown their superiority and promise for generating rabbit models of human genetic diseases. In this review, we summarize the brief history of transgenic rabbit technology and the development of novel genome editing technologies in rabbits.
Accurate targeting of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) to synaptic vesicles (SVs) is indispensable for efficient cholinergic transmission. Previous studies have suggested that the dileucine motif within the C-terminus of the transporter is sufficient for its targeting to SVs. However, the cytosolic mechanism underlying specific regulation of VAChT trafficking and targeting to SVs is still unclear. Here we use the C-terminus of VAChT as bait in a yeast-two-hybrid screen to identify sorting nexin 5 (SNX5) as its novel interacting protein. SNX5 is detected in the SVs enriched LP2 subcellular fraction of rat brain homogenate and shows strong colocalization with VAChT in both brain sections and PC12 cells. Binding assays suggest that the C-terminal domain of VAChT can interact with both BAR and PX domain of SNX5. Depletion of SNX5 enhances the degradation of VAChT and the process is mediated through the lysosomal pathway. More importantly, we find that, in PC12 cells, the depletion of SNX5 expression significantly decreases the synaptic vesicle-like vesicles (SVLVs) localization of VAChT. Therefore, the results suggest that SNX5 is a novel regulator for both stability and SV targeting of VAChT.
The Journal of Biomedical Research--2021, 35(1)
Review Article
Neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and affect the health of billions of people. Nitric oxide (NO), a free gas with multitudinous bioactivities, is mainly produced from the oxidation of L-arginine by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. Inhibiting nNOS benefits a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including stroke, depression and anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, chronic pain, and drug addiction. Due to critical roles of nNOS in learning and memory and synaptic plasticity, direct inhibition of nNOS may cause severe side effects. Importantly, interactions of several proteins, including post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95), carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON) and serotonin transporter (SERT), with the PSD/Disc-large/ZO-1 homologous (PDZ) domain of nNOS have been demonstrated to influence the subcellular distribution and activity of the enzyme in the brain. Therefore, it will be a preferable means to interfere with nNOS-mediated protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which do not lead to undesirable effects. Herein, we summarize the current literatures on nNOS-mediated PPIs involved in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the discovery of drugs targeting the PPIs, which is expected to provide potential targets for developing novel drugs and new strategy for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Original Article
Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients have unique genetic characteristics, however, the specific genomic features relating to the development and treatment of LUAD in the Chinese population are not fully understood. Here, we applied the ultra-deep targeted sequencing to 66 Chinese LUAD samples, accompanied by comparative analysis with 162 Caucasian LUAD in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We focused on the 68 recurrently mutated genes and results revealed that the panel-based tumor mutational burden (pTMB) is significantly higher in the Chinese LUAD (P=0.0017). Additionally, the percentage of smoking-associated C>A transversion is significantly lower in Chinese LUAD (15.5%vs. 39.7%, P=5.69×10−27), while C>T transition is more frequent in Chinese LUAD (35.8%vs. 25.7%, P=2.67×10−5), which indicated the ethnic difference in mutation types. Notably, novel driver genes (GNAS and JAK1) that are peculiar to Chinese LUAD were identified, and a more convergent distribution of mutations was observed in the Chinese cohort (P=0.012) compared with scattered mutations in Caucasian LUAD. Our results present a distinct genomic profile of Chinese LUAD compared to Caucasians LUAD and elucidate the ethnic difference in mutation distribution besides the type and rate.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most deadly cancers in the world with few reliable biomarkers that have been selected into clinical guidelines for prognosis of CRC patients. In this study, mRNA microarray datasets GSE113513, GSE21510, GSE44076, and GSE32323 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed with bioinformatics to identify hub genes in CRC development. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed using the GEO2R tool. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analyses were performed through the DAVID database. STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and identify key modules and hub genes. Survival analyses of the DEGs were performed on GEPIA database. The Connectivity Map database was used to screen potential drugs. A total of 865 DEGs were identified, including 374 upregulated and 491 downregulated genes. These DEGs were mainly associated with metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, cell cycle and so on. The PPI network was identified with 863 nodes and 5817 edges. Survival analysis revealed that HMMR, PAICS, ETFDH, and SCG2 were significantly associated with overall survival of CRC patients. And blebbistatin and sulconazole were identified as candidate drugs. In conclusion, our study found four hub genes involved in CRC, which may provide novel potential biomarkers for CRC prognosis, and two potential candidate drugs for CRC.
There is growing evidence that cellular metabolism can directly participate in epigenetic dynamics and consequently modulate gene expression. However, the role of metabolites in activating the key gene regulatory network for specialization of germ cell lineage remains largely unknown. Here, we identified some cellular metabolites with significant changes by untargeted metabolomics between mouse epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) and primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs). More importantly, we found that inhibition of glutaminolysis by bis-2- (5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide (BPTES) impeded PGCLC specialization, but the impediment could be rescued by addition of α-ketoglutarate (αKG), the intermediate metabolite of oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis. Moreover, adding αKG alone to the PGCLC medium accelerated the PGCLC specialization through promoting H3K27me3 demethylation. Thus, our study reveals the importance of metabolite αKG in the germ cell fate determination and highlights the essential role of cellular metabolism in shaping the cell identities through epigenetic events.
Protein ubiquitination is essential for diverse cellular functions including spermatogenesis. The tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins, most of which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, are highly conserved in mammals. They are involved in important cellular processes such as embryonic development, immunity, and fertility. Our previous studies indicated that Trim69, a testis-specific expressed TRIM family gene, potentially participates in the spermatogenesis by mediating testicular cells apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of Trim69 in male mice by established Trim69 knockout mice with CRISPR/Cas9 genomic editing technology. Here, we reported that the male Trim69 knockout mice had normal fertility. The adult knockout mice have shown that the appearance of testes, testis/body weight ratios, testicular histomorphology, and the number and quality of sperm were consistent with wild-type mice. These results indicated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase protein Trim69 was not essential for male mouse fertility, and it might be compensated by other TRIM family members such as Trim58 in Trim69-deficiency testis. This study would help to elucidate the functions of tripartite motif protein family and the regulation of spermatogenesis.
To evaluate if valproic acid (VPA) therapy is associated with vitamin D deficiency among infants and toddlers with epilepsy, a cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in 25 children with epilepsy taking VPA. Blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and plasma VPA level were measured at 1- to 3-month intervals. At the initial and final measurements, vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was recognized in 8 (32%) and 12 (42%), respectively. In girls, a decreasing trend in serum 25(OH)D levels (P<0.05) was observed. Polytherapy had a significant negative effect on the longitudinal change of 25(OH)D (P<0.05) in girls. In conclusion, our study indicates that a high proportion of girls after VPA therapy had hypovitaminosis D.
Case Report
Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is an incapacitating complication that can occur following spinal anesthesia and with inadvertent dural puncture during epidural anesthesia. We present a case of a 32-year-old G2P1 female who was admitted for induction of labor and received epidural catheter placement for analgesia. After an inadvertent dural puncture and development of a PDPH, the patient was offered conservative measures for the first 48 hours without improvement. An epidural blood patch (EBP) was placed achieving only moderate relief. Two days later, a second EBP was performed and the patient developed severe back pain which radiated bilaterally to her buttocks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the presence of blood in the intrathecal space. This could be the cause of sacral radiculitis, an uncommon complication of an EBP. This suggests that EBPs could potentially cause neurologic symptoms which may be more common than people previously thought. As complicated outcomes have followed both conservative and aggressive management, MRI can be an early diagnostic tool in such cases and a multidisciplinary approach should be taken.
After type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) repair or modified Bentall procedure, uncontrollable bleeding from the anastomotic sites of the fragile dissected tissues or aortic root area is a critical situation to a cardiac surgeon. For postoperative care, lots of blood transfusion with strict monitoring on the patient all night and subsequent reoperation for the bleeding control is usually needed. We managed to make contained local compression of upper half of the heart, from upper part of the right ventricle to just above the innominate vein, using bovine pericardium with closing both sides of transverse sinus in two cases of uncontrolled postoperative bleeding (bleeding from distal anastomotic site in type-A AAD and valve sitting site in modified Bentall procedure). Even though reoperations for the removal of packed gauges were done in both cases 2 days later, postoperative courses at intensive care unit were very smooth with little need for transfusion. This kind of contained local compression trial could be a useful strategy for dealing with the malignant uncontrollable bleeding from the fragile aortic tissue or root area after acute dissection or aortic root repair.
Myocardin in biology and disease
Joseph M. Miano
2015, 29(1): 3-19.   doi: 10.7555/JBR. 29.20140151
+Abstract PDF 5076KB
GYY4137 protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats
Guoliang Meng, Jing Wang, Yujiao Xiao, Wenli Bai, Liping Xie, Liyang Shan, Philip K Moore, Yong Ji
2015, 29(3): 203-213.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140037
+Abstract PDF 2347KB
Exosomes and their role in the micro-/macro-environment: a comprehensive review
Naureen Javeed, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay
2017, 31(5): 386-394.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150162
+Abstract PDF 185KB
Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy
Eika S. Webb, Peng Liu, Renato Baleeiro, Nicholas R. Lemoine, Ming Yuan, Yaohe Wang
2018, 32(5): 317-326.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160168
+Abstract PDF 275KB
Recent advances in targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis in vivo
Matthew G.K. Benesch, Xiaoyun Tang, Ganesh Venkatraman, Raie T. Bekele, David N. Brindley
2016, 30(4): 272-284.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150058
+Abstract PDF 462KB
Translating transitions - how to decipher peripheral human B cell development
Mats Bemark
2015, 29(4): 264-284.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20150035
+Abstract PDF 858KB
Statistical analysis for genome-wide association study
Ping Zeng, Yang Zhao, Cheng Qian, Liwei Zhang, Ruyang Zhang, Jianwei Gou, Jin Liu, Liya Liu, Feng Chen
2015, 29(4): 285-297.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140007
+Abstract PDF 3937KB
Autoantibodies in Alzheimer's disease: potential biomarkers, pathogenic roles, and therapeutic implications
Jianming Wu, Ling Li
2016, 30(5): 361-372.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.30.20150131
+Abstract PDF 426KB
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity accounts for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A
Fang Chen, Libin Zhou, Yinyang Bai, Rong Zhou, Ling Chen
2015, 29(3): 250-258.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140058
+Abstract PDF 1060KB
Osthole inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
Lintao Wang, Yanyan Peng, Kaikai Shi, Haixiao Wang, Jianlei Lu, Yanli Li, Changyan Ma
2015, 29(2): 132-138.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120115
+Abstract PDF 1282KB
Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage
Hanpeng Huang, Xiaoyu Li, Yan Zhuang, Nan Li, Xudong Zhu, Jin Hu, Jingjing Ben, Qing Yang, Hui Bai, Qi Chen
2014, 28(3): 213-221.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130105
+Abstract [PDF 11939KB](732)
Dual therapy of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone with glimepiride on diabetic nephropathy in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes rats
Ravi Prakash Rao, Ansima Singh, Arun K Jain, Bhartu Parsharthi Srinivasan
2011, 25(6): 411-417.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60054-7
+Abstract [PDF 1947KB](680)
A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems
Ritu MGilhotra, Mohd Ikram, Sunny Srivastava, Neeraj Gilhotra
2014, 28(2): 81-97.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120136
+Abstract [PDF 2323KB](742)
AEG-1 expression correlates with CD133 and PPP6c levels in human glioma tissues
Jia Guo, Xin Chen, Ruxing Xi, Yuwei Chang, Xuanwei Zhang, Xiaozhi Zhang
2014, 28(5): 388-395.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20140015
+Abstract [PDF 14254KB](733)
Lipoprotein metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Zhenghui Gordon Jiang, Simon C. Robson, Zemin Yao
2013, 27(1): 1-13.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120077
+Abstract [PDF 1247KB](717)
ApoB/apoA1 is an effective predictor of coronary heart disease risk in overweight and obesity
Min Lu, Qun Lu, Yong Zhang, Gang Tian
2011, 25(4): 266-273.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60036-5
+Abstract [PDF 1144KB](682)
Development of Leishmania vaccines: predicting the future from past and present experience
Joshua Muli Mutiso, John Chege Macharia, Maria Ndunge Kiio, James Maina Ichagichu, Hitler Rikoi, Michael Muita Gicheru
2013, 27(2): 85-102.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120064
+Abstract [PDF 1050KB](748)
Atrial fibrillation
Thomas M. Munger, Li-Qun Wu, Win K. Shen
2014, 28(1): 1-17.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.28.20130191
+Abstract [PDF 5352KB](819)
Maternal risk factors for low birth weight for term births in a developed region in China: a hospital-based study of 55,633 pregnancies
Yihua Bian, Zhan Zhang, Qiao Liu, Di Wu, Shoulin Wang
2013, 27(1): 14-22.   doi: 10.7555/JBR.27.20120046
+Abstract [PDF 1263KB](715)
Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials
Ibrahim M. Hamouda, Salah H. Shehata
2011, 25(6): 418-424.   doi: 10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60055-9
+Abstract [PDF 763KB](673)