Schistosoma japonicum, once endemic all the East Asia, remains as a serious public health problem in certain regions. Ectopic egg embryonation in the liver causes granulomatosis and eventually fatal cirrhosis, so that prevention of this process is one of the keys to reduce its mortality. The embryonation requires cholesteryl ester from HDL of the host blood for egg yolk formation, and this reaction is impaired from the abnormal large HDL in genetic cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency. When CETP was expressed in mice that otherwise lack this protein, granulomatosis of the liver was shown increased compared to the wild type upon infection of Schistosoma japonicum. The CETP deficiencies accumulated exclusively in East Asia, from Indochina to Siberia, so that Shistosomiasis can be a screening factor for this accumulation. CD36 related protein (CD36RP) was identified as a protein for this reaction, cloned from the cDNA library of Schistosoma japonicum with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino acids. The antibody against the extracellular loop of CD36RP inhibited
cholesteryl ester uptake from HDL and suppressed egg embryonation in culture. Therefore, inhibition of CETP is a potential approach to prevent liver granulomatosis and thereby fatal liver cirrhosis in the infection of Schistosoma japonicum.