This retrospective study investigated the impact of endplate fracture on postoperative vertebral height loss and kyphotic deformity in 144 patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF), who received balloon kyphoplasty. Patients were divided into four groups: Group 1 had no superior endplate fracture, Group 2 had frac-tures on the anterior portion of the superior endplate, Group 3 had fractures on the posterior portion of the superior endplate, and Group 4 had complete superior endplate fractures. Anterior and middle vertebral body height, vertebral compression ratio, vertebral height loss rate, and kyphosis Cobb angle of each patient were measured and visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores were recorded. The anterior vertebral height and kyphosis deformity of all groups significantly improved after the surgery, whereas substantial anterior vertebral height loss and increased Cobb angle were observed in all patients at the last follow-up. Although the vertebral height loss rate and the Cobb angle in Group 2, 3 and 4 were larger compared with Group 1 at the last follow-up, only the vertebral height loss rate in Group 4 and the increase in the Cobb angle in Group 2 and 4 were statistically different from those in Group 1. The VAS and ODI scores in all groups measured after the surgery and at the last follow-up were significantly lower compared with preoperative scores, but there was no significant difference among these groups. Balloon kyphoplasty significantly improved vertebral fracture height and kyphosis. Vertebral height loss and increased kyphotic deformity were observed in OVCF patients with endplate fractures after the surgery. Postoperative aggravation of kyphosis was observed in Group 2. Furthermore, severe vertebral height loss and increased kyphotic deformity were confirmed in Group 4 after the surgery. Our results suggested that postoperative vertebral height loss and aggravation of kyphosis may be associated with biomechanical changes in the vertebral body caused by endplate fracture. Therefore, surgery should not only restore compressed vertebral body height and correct kyphosis, but also correct the deformity of endplate to achieve an effective treatment of OVCF patients with endplate fracture.