Hypertension is a multifactorial condition which makes the development of treatment approaches difficult. The vast majority of patients are treated with lifestyle measures either alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs, and this approach is largely successful in controlling blood pressure. However, for a subgroup of patients, control of blood pressure remains resistant to this approach and therefore the development of new strategies is im?perative. The sympathetic nervous system has been known to be implicated in hypertension for many decades, and evidence from studies in the past has revealed the benefit of reducing sympathetic nerve activity in the control of blood pressure albeit with severe side effects. Recent technological advances have allowed for specific targeting of the renal sympathetic nerves by catheter ablation. The Symplicity HTN-1 and HTN-2 trials have provided strong evidence for renal denervation giving rise to considerable blood pressure reductions in treatment-resistant hyper?tensives and, due to the high incidence of hypertension worldwide, this carries the promise of further reducing the global burden of hypertension and its attendant complications. Here we review the evidence for renal denervation in the management of hypertension.