Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and de-creased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computa-tional approaches like remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key re-sources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spread-ing from one region to another.