2021 Vol. 35, No. 6
Abnormal expression of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) has been implicated in drug resistance, while our previous study showed that chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) increased LINE-1 level with unknown mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the regulation of LINE-1 mRNA by drug-induced stress granules (SGs). This study aimed to explore whether and how SGs are involved in drug-induced LINE-1 increase and thereby promotes drug resistance of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We demonstrated that SGs increased LINE-1 expression by recruiting and stabilizing LINE-1 mRNA under drug stress, thereby adapting TNBC cells to chemotherapy drugs. Moreover, LINE-1 inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) could inhibit drug-induced SG to destabilize LINE-1. Our study provides the first evidence of the regulation of LINE-1 by SGs that could be an important survival mechanism for cancer cells exposed to chemotherapy drugs. The findings provide a useful clue for developing new chemotherapeutic strategies against TNBCs.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a severe cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to identify crucial microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs in AMI by establishing a miRNA-mRNA network. The microarray datasets GSE31568, GSE148153, and GSE66360 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We identified differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and mRNAs (DE-mRNAs) in AMI samples compared with normal control samples. The consistently changing miRNAs in both GSE31568 and GSE148153 datasets were selected as candidate DE-miRNAs. The interactions between the candidate DE-miRNAs and DE-mRNAs were analyzed, and a miRNA-mRNA network and a protein-protein interaction network were constructed, along with functional enrichment and pathway analyses. A total of 209 DE-miRNAs in the GSE31568 dataset, 857 DE-miRNAs in the GSE148153 dataset, and 351 DE-mRNAs in the GSE66360 dataset were identified. Eighteen candidate DE-miRNAs were selected from both the GSE31568 and GSE148153 datasets. Furthermore, miR-646, miR-127-5p, miR-509-5p, miR-509-3-5p, and miR-767-5p were shown to have a higher degree in the miRNA-mRNA network. THBS-1 as well as FOS was a hub gene in the miRNA-mRNA network and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, respectively. CDKN1A was important in both miRNA-mRNA network and PPI network. We established a miRNA-mRNA network in AMI and identified five miRNAs and three genes, which might be used as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for patients with AMI.
Isometric exercise (IE) is a promising intervention of noninvasive revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to investigate the impact and mechanisms of IE training on arteriogenesis in AMI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the sham-operation group (SO), myocardial infarction (MI) group, and 13 IE subgroups treated according to training intensity, frequency, duration, or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), or/and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) inhibitors for eight weeks. Our results demonstrated that the IE group achieved superior improvement compared with the MI group in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), myocardial infarction size (MIS), arterial density (AD), monocytes (MNCs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells (ECs), relative collateral blood flow (RCBF), MCP-1, and FGF-2 at the endpoint. Positive correlations between MCP-1 and MNCs, MNCs and FGF-2, FGF-2 and SMCs, SMCs and AD, as well as AD and RCBF were observed. This study demonstrated that with MI of 100% load 20 times daily for eight weeks, the arteriogenesis was improved, which may be attributed to the recruitment of MNCs and SMCs in remote ischemic myocardium caused by increases in MCP-1 and FGF-2 expression.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disorder difficult to be treated with medication. This study investigated the potential of ovalicin extracted from Cordyceps militaris for the treatment of AD using in vitro and in vivo models. We found that, in canine macrophage cell line DH82, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulated the expression of genes associated with inflammation and pruritic responses through activating calcium and interleukin-31 (IL-31) signaling, and the upregulation could be suppressed by ovalicin, with an effect significantly stronger than dexamethasone. Ovalicin also reduced the expression of IL-31 downstream genes, including JAK2 (Janus kinase 2), TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1), and HRH2 (histamine receptor H2). Ovalicin significantly alleviated the allergic symptoms in the AD mouse model. Histologically, the number of macrophages and mast cells infiltrated in the dermis was significantly reduced by ovalicin treatment. In the skin tissue of AD mice, reduction of IL-31 receptor was observed in the ovalicin treated group compared to the group without ovalicin treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the anti-atopic mechanism of ovalicin, which could be an alternative to steroidal drugs commonly used for AD treatment.
Lassa hemorrhagic fever, caused by Lassa mammarenavirus (LASV) infection, accumulates up to 5000 deaths every year. Currently, there is no vaccine available to combat this disease. In this study, a library of 200 bioactive compounds was virtually screened to study their drug-likeness with the capacity to block the α-dystroglycan (α-DG) receptor and prevent LASV influx. Following rigorous absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) profiling, molecular docking was conducted with the top ligands against the α-DG receptor. The compounds chrysin, reticuline, and 3-caffeoylshikimic acid emerged as the top three ligands in terms of binding affinity. Post-docking analysis revealed that interactions with Arg76, Asn224, Ser259, and Lys302 amino acid residues of the receptor protein were important for the optimum binding affinity of ligands. Molecular dynamics simulation was performed comprehensively to study the stability of the protein-ligand complexes. In-depth assessment of root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), polar surface area (PSA), B-Factor, radius of gyration (Rg), solvent accessible surface area (SASA), and molecular surface area (MolSA) values of the protein-ligand complexes affirmed that the candidates with the best binding affinity formed the most stable protein-ligand complexes. To authenticate the potentialities of the ligands as target-specific drugs, an in vivo study is underway in real time as the continuation of the research.
Acute hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) mainly occurs in adults as a result of perioperative cardiac arrest and asphyxia. The benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in maintaining brain growth and development are well documented. However, possible protective targets and underlying mechanisms of mfat-1 mice on HIBD require further investigation. The mfat-1 transgenic mice exhibited protective effects on HIBD, as indicated by reduced infarct range and improved neurobehavioral defects. RNA-seq analysis showed that multiple pathways and targets were involved in this process, with the anti-inflammatory pathway as the most significant. This study has shown for the first time that mfat-1 has protective effects on HIBD in mice. Activation of a G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120)-related anti-inflammatory pathway may be associated with perioperative and postoperative complications, thus innovating clinical intervention strategy may potentially benefit patients with HIBD.