2020 Vol. 34, No. 3
This special issue of The Journal of Biomedical Research features novel studies on epileptic seizure detection and prediction based on advanced EEG signal processing and machine learning algorithms. The articles selected present important findings including new experimental results and theoretical studies.
The visual analysis of common neurological disorders such as epileptic seizures in electroencephalography (EEG) is an oversensitive operation and prone to errors, which has motivated the researchers to develop effective automated seizure detection methods. This paper proposes a robust automatic seizure detection method that can establish a veritable diagnosis of these diseases. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i) remove artifact from EEG data using Savitzky-Golay filter and multi-scale principal component analysis (MSPCA), (ii) extract features from EEG signals using signal decomposition representations based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) allowing to overcome the non-linearity and non-stationary of EEG signals, and (iii) allocate the feature vector to the relevant class (i.e., seizure class "ictal" or free seizure class "interictal") using machine learning techniques such as support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The experimental results were based on two EEG datasets generated from the CHB-MIT database with and without overlapping process. The results obtained have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method that allows achieving a higher classification accuracy rate up to 100% and also outperforms similar state-of-the-art methods.
Epileptic seizures are known for their unpredictable nature. However, recent research provides that the transition to seizure event is not random but the result of evidence accumulations. Therefore, a reliable method capable to detect these indications can predict seizures and improve the life quality of epileptic patients. Seizures periods are generally characterized by epileptiform discharges with different changes including spike rate variation according to the shapes, spikes, and the amplitude. In this study, spike rate is used as the indicator to anticipate seizures in electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Spikes detection step is used in EEG signal during interictal, preictal, and ictal periods followed by a mean filter to smooth the spike number. The maximum spike rate in interictal periods is used as an indicator to predict seizures. When the spike number in the preictal period exceeds the threshold, an alarm is triggered. Using the CHB-MIT database, the proposed approach has ensured 92% accuracy in seizure prediction for all patients.
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders affecting 70 million people worldwide. The present work is focused on designing an efficient algorithm for automatic seizure detection by using electroencephalogram (EEG) as a noninvasive procedure to record neuronal activities in the brain. EEG signals' underlying dynamics are extracted to differentiate healthy and seizure EEG signals. Shannon entropy, collision entropy, transfer entropy, conditional probability, and Hjorth parameter features are extracted from subbands of tunable Q wavelet transform. Efficient decomposition level for different feature vector is selected using the Kruskal-Wallis test to achieve good classification. Different features are combined using the discriminant correlation analysis fusion technique to form a single fused feature vector. The accuracy of the proposed approach is higher for Q=2 and J=10. Transfer entropy is observed to be significant for different class combinations. Proposed approach achieved 100% accuracy in classifying healthy-seizure EEG signal using simple and robust features and hidden Markov model with less computation time. The proposed approach efficiency is evaluated in classifying seizure and non-seizure surface EEG signals. The system has achieved 96.87% accuracy in classifying surface seizure and nonseizure EEG segments using efficient features extracted from different J level.
We are here to present a new method for the classification of epileptic seizures from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It consists of applying empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to extract the most relevant intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and subsequent computation of the Teager and instantaneous energy, Higuchi and Petrosian fractal dimension, and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) for each IMF. We validated the method using a public dataset of 24 subjects with EEG signals from 22 channels and showed that it is possible to classify the epileptic seizures, even with segments of six seconds and a smaller number of channels (e.g., an accuracy of 0.93 using five channels). We were able to create a general machine-learning-based model to detect epileptic seizures of new subjects using epileptic-seizure data from various subjects, after reducing the number of instances, based on the k-means algorithm.
The detection of seizure onset and events using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are important tasks in epilepsy research. The literature available on seizure detection has discussed the implementation of advanced signal processing algorithms using tools accessed over the cloud. However, seizure monitoring application needs near sensor processing due to privacy and latency issues. In this paper, a real time seizure detection system has been implemented using an embedded system. The proposed system is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and tunable-Q wavelet transform (TQWT) algorithms. The analysis and classification of non-stationary EEG signals require the wavelet transform with high Q-factor. However, direct use of TQWT increases the computational complexity of feature extraction from multivariate EEG signals. In this paper, the first step is to process the signal by using EEMD to obtain 8 intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The Kraskov (KraEn), sample (SampEn), and permutation (PermEn) entropy features of IMFs are extracted and based on optimum values, and 4 IMFs are decomposed using TQWT. Secondly, centered correntropy (CenCorrEn) features of the 1st and 16th sub-band of TQWT have been used as classifier inputs. The performance of multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN), least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), and random forest (RF) classifiers has been tested on the multichannel EEG data recorded from a local hospital. The RF classifier has produced the highest accuracy of 96.2% in classifying the signals. The proposed scheme has been employed in developing an embedded seizure detection system to assist neurologists in making seizure diagnostic decisions.
The two-point central difference is a common algorithm in biological signal processing and is particularly useful in analyzing physiological signals. In this paper, we develop a model-based classification method to detect epileptic seizures that relies on this algorithm to filter electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The underlying idea was to design an EEG filter that enhances the waveform of epileptic signals. The filtered signal was fitted to a quadratic linear-parabolic model using the curve fitting technique. The model fitting was assessed using four statistical parameters, which were used as classification features with a random forest algorithm to discriminate seizure and non-seizure events. The proposed method was applied to 66 epochs from the Children Hospital Boston database. Results showed that the method achieved fast and accurate detection of epileptic seizures, with a 92% sensitivity, 96% specificity, and 94.1% accuracy.
In this paper, complexity analysis and dynamic characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal based on maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) has been exploited for the identification of seizure onset. Since wavelet-based studies were well suited for classification of normal and epileptic seizure EEG, we have applied MODWT which is an improved version of discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The selection of optimal wavelet sub-band and features plays a crucial role to understand the brain dynamics in epileptic patients. Therefore, we have investigated MODWT using four different wavelets, namely Haar, Coif4, Dmey, and Sym4 sub-bands until seven levels. Further, we have explored the potentials of six entropies, namely sigmoid, Shannon, wavelet, Renyi, Tsallis, and Steins unbiased risk estimator (SURE) entropies in each sub-band. The sigmoid entropy extracted from Haar wavelet in sub-band D4 showed the highest accuracy of 98.44% using support vector machine classifier for the EEG collected from Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals (RMCH). Further, the highest accuracy of 100% and 94.51% was achieved for the University of Bonn (UBonn) and CHB-MIT databases respectively. The findings of the study showed that Haar and Dmey wavelets were found to be computationally economical and expensive respectively. Besides, in terms of dynamic characteristics, MODWT results revealed that the highest energy present in sub-bands D2, D3, and D4 and entropies in those respective sub-bands outperformed other entropies in terms of classification results for RMCH database. Similarly, using all the entropies, sub-bands D5 and D6 outperformed other sub-bands for UBonn and CHB-MIT databases respectively. In conclusion, the comparison results of MODWT outperformed DWT.
The problem of automated seizure detection is treated using clinical electroencephalograms (EEG) and machine learning algorithms on the Temple University Hospital EEG Seizure Corpus (TUSZ). Performances on this complex data set are still not encountering expectations. The purpose of this work is to determine to what extent the use of larger amount of data can help to improve the performances. Two methods are explored: a standard partitioning on a recent and larger version of the TUSZ, and a leave-one-out approach used to increase the amount of data for the training set. XGBoost, a fast implementation of the gradient boosting classifier, is the ideal algorithm for these tasks. The performances obtained are in the range of what is reported until now in the literature with deep learning models. We give interpretation to our results by identifying the most relevant features and analyzing performances by seizure types. We show that generalized seizures tend to be far better predicted than focal ones. We also notice that some EEG channels and features are more important than others to distinguish seizure from background.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the function of the brain in people of all ages. It manifests in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal which records the electrical activity of the brain. Various image processing, signal processing, and machine-learning based techniques are employed to analyze epilepsy, using spatial and temporal features. The nervous system that generates the EEG signal is considered nonlinear and the EEG signals exhibit chaotic behavior. In order to capture these nonlinear dynamics, we use reconstructed phase space (RPS) representation of the signal. Earlier studies have primarily addressed seizure detection as a binary classification (normal vs. ictal) problem and rarely as a ternary class (normal vs. interictal vs. ictal) problem. We employ transfer learning on a pre-trained deep neural network model and retrain it using RPS images of the EEG signal. The classification accuracy of the model for the binary classes is (98.5±1.5)% and (95±2)% for the ternary classes. The performance of the convolution neural network (CNN) model is better than the other existing statistical approach for all performance indicators such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The result of the proposed approach shows the prospect of employing RPS images with CNN for predicting epileptic seizures.